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Saturday, September 15, 2012

"History of sea ice in the Arctic" by Leonid Polyak et al., Quartn. Sci. Rev., 29 (2010) doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.02.010

Quarternary Science Reviews, 29 (2010) 17571778; doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.02.010

History of sea ice in the Arctic

Leonid Polyak*, Richard B. Alley, John T. Andrews, Julie Brigham-Grette, Thomas M. CroninDennis A. Darby, Arthur S. Dyke, Joan J. Fitzpatrick, Svend Funder, Marika HollandAnne E. Jennings, Gifford H. Miller, Matt O’Regan, James Savelle, Mark SerrezeKristen St. John, James W. C. White and Eric Wolff


Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may  become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past. This information can be provided by proxy records from the Arctic Ocean floor and from the surrounding coasts. Although existing records are far from complete, they indicate that sea ice became a feature of the Arctic by 47 Ma, following a pronounced decline in atmospheric pCO2 after the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most wide-spread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even seasonally ice-free conditions occurred during warmer  periods linked to orbital variations. The last low-ice event related to orbital forcing (high insolation) was in the early Holocene, after which the northern high latitudes cooled overall, with some superimposed shorter-term (multidecadal to millennial-scale) and lower-magnitude variability. The current reduction in Arctic ice cover started in the late 19th century, consistent with the rapidly warming climate, and became very pronounced over the last three decades. This ice loss appears to be unmatched over at least the last few thousand years and unexplainable by any of the known natural variabilities.

Readers, for a discussion of the proxy records and the limitations of the various sediment cores from the Arctic Ocean and its margins, go to the link below and page 4.

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